BlogPost

DS-ASD (ダウン症と自閉症スペクトラム)

ダウン症と自閉症スペクトラムの合併または複合についての、記事を要約してみました。原典は、”Down Syndrome and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Look At What We Know”で、こちらのサイトからダウンロードすることが出来ます。

1.ダウン症と自閉症は、同一人物に共存するような症状ではないと、最近まで一般的には信じられてきた。

2.最近では、ダウン症の診断を受けている人にも、自閉症スペクトラム障害(ASD)や強迫性障害(OCD)のような診断もつくようになってきている。

3.現時点(2001年)でダウン症と診断を受けてなおかつ、ASDの診断を受ける割合は、1%から10%の間とされているが、著者としては、5−7%が妥当な数字であると考えているということ。

DS-ASDの特徴的な事がかかれておりますが、和訳は少し面倒なので英文のまま転記しておきます。

Children with DS-ASD were more likely to have:

• History of developmental regression including loss of language and social skills,

• Poor communication skills (many children had no meaningful speech or signing),

• Self-injurious and disruptive behaviours (such as skin picking, biting, and head hitting or banging),

• Repetitive motor behaviours (such as grinding teeth, hand flapping, and rocking),

• Unusual vocalisations (such as grunting, humming, and throaty noises),

• Unusual sensory responsiveness (such as spinning, staring at lights, or sensitivity to certain sounds),

• Feeding problems (such as food refusal or strong preference for specific textures), and

• Increased anxiety, irritability, difficulty with transitions, hyperactivity, attention problems, and significant sleep disturbances.

Other observations include:

• Children with DS-ASD scored significantly higher than their peers with Down syndrome alone on all five subscales of the ABC: sensory function, social relating, body and object use, language use, and social skills.

• Children with DS-ASD show less impairment in social relatedness than those with ASD only.

• Children with DS-ASD show more preoccupation with body movement and object use than children with ASD alone.

• Children with DS-ASD scored higher on all five subscales of the ABC than children with severe cognitive impairment alone.

• Among children with Down syndrome only, even those with severe cognitive impairment do not always meet the criteria for ASD.